Simple and Complex States

Simple State

The state serves as the repository for storing and accessing data within a smart contract. Conceptually, it operates in a manner akin to the database interaction layer found in conventional applications.

A basic approach to managing state entails the storage of a single entity. For instance, in the case of the cw20 contract, the TokenInfo is established and recorded during the contract's initialization phase.

Initially, a TokenInfo type is defined in

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Clone, PartialEq, JsonSchema, Debug)]
#[serde(rename_all = "snake_case")]
pub struct TokenInfo {
  pub name: String,
  pub symbol: String,
  pub decimals: u8,
  pub total_supply: Uint128,
  pub mint: Option<MinterData>,

Then the storage is initialized:

pub const TOKEN_INFO: Item<TokenInfo> = Item::new("token_info");

Within the contract, the instantiate function demonstrates the process of saving data to this:

let data = TokenInfo {
  symbol: msg.symbol,
  decimals: msg.decimals,
};, & data) ?;

Complex State

In more intricate solutions, there might be a requirement to store supplementary information. One approach to accomplish this is by serializing comprehensive JSON data structures, which enables data retrieval using key-value pairs.

In the context of CW20, the association of addresses with their CW20 balances is accomplished using a Map data structure

pub const BALANCES: Map<&Addr, Uint128> = Map::new("balance");

You can locate the code for this right here.

Here's an illustrative example of how to work with the value within the BALANCES map (seen here), as demonstrated in the subsequent code snippet:

let rcpt_addr = deps.api.addr_validate(&recipient)?;
   |balance: Option<Uint128>| -> StdResult<_> {

There's a lot of complexity here, so let's dissect it step by step:

  1. is an input provided, originating from the contract context. Think of deps as similar to the ctx you might have encountered in the Cosmos SDK.

  2. &rcpt_addr is a borrowed reference to the validated recipient address. It's been verified and confirmed as valid; otherwise, the "let" statement would have triggered an error. This reference corresponds to the key within the key/value pair.

  3. The third statement consists of an anonymous function (lambda) that returns a StdResult and carries out a computation based on the current value of balance. In this context, balance signifies the value within the key/value pair, while &rcpt_addr serves as the key.

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